History of Jazz

History of Jazz

Early & Swing Jazz in American Society

The roots of early jazz can be traced back to New Orleans and there are many reasons behind this. To begin with, the city was home to one of the most ethnically diverse communities in America, which provided for real cross-culturalization.  Apart from French colonial culture, many Sicilian and Italians had also migrated to New Orleans (Gioia 21).  Besides African-Americans whose ancestors were slaves, New Orleans was also home to a Creole population that originated from the original French population and freed African-Americans slaves (Gioia 25).

The institutions in New Orleans regularly contracted jazz musicians to provide entertainment in the town. Apart from local establishments, there were several business entities in the town that employed jazz musicians. Apart from jazz becoming popular in New Orleans, local business establishments allowed unlawful activities. This explains why many local entertainment businesses and bordellos were situated in the tenderloin districts.

Despite the growing popularity of jazz, a number of conservative blacks and whites did not embrace early jazz. There were a number of reasons why this category of people did not loved early jazz. To begin with, they did not love the manner in which black people danced jazz because they considered it too naughty and sexual. Secondly, blacks from New Orleans did not like being identified with blacks from other parts of the country because they were behaving immorally. The third reason why some conservatives did not embrace early jazz was because it was performed in bordello, bars and other venues associated with crime gambling. During that time, there was also discrimination between whites and blacks. This meant that whites were not ready to be associated with anything black, including jazz. According to Scaruffi, “the collective voice had triumphed over individual voice and in Chicago; more jazz musicians were allowed more room to improvise. This can be attributed to jazz musicians becoming increasingly self-assured or the influence of the freewheeling spirit of the big city”.

The great depression had both negative and positive effects on jazz.  The main positive effect of the great depression was that jazz became increasingly popular. The main reason why jazz became popular was because it made people feel good despite the economic problems that they were facing.  The negative impact of the great depression was that several music businesses were forced to close or relocate to other cities.

The technological developments of the swing era also influenced jazz music. For example, the microphone made the quality of sound better compared to recorded sound. Moreover, technological advancements of the time, especially the radio, made it possible to spread jazz to many people. The radio also made it possible for many people to listen to jazz music for free and also reach a wider audience.

Swing jazz was important to many Americans during the war and this period saw an increase in the performance of jazz. Since the Germans had banned American music, majority of American artists changed their title songs to Dutch’s language. Moreover, the number of jazz fans grew because jazz made them feel hopeful despite the ongoing war (Schuller 23).

There was a lot of segregation during the swing era and many bands were either filled with all white or all black band members. The segregation was caused by some audiences that did not like bands with a mixture of whites and blacks. Moreover, there were bar owners who did not want to see fights in their premises resulting from a mixture of black and whites.   In documentary Jazz part 5, the road, there was widespread segregation and racism. In fact, the segregation was so serious such that only black musicians were left performing swing jazz (Schuller 54). Due to the fact that racism was widespread, whites could not buy or listen to black music, black artists had a difficult time economically. This was because white people were economically well-off compared to blacks and their boycott of black music had denied them a rich market.

Despite the fact that there are different types of jazz today, swing is most popular. Jazz music is characteristically swing jazz. In this type of jazz, there is a section in the song where the lead vocalist sings and in doing so, they use “jive talk” which is a type of slang. They create a dictionary of every word and name it “The Hepter’s Dictionary”.  “Some six years ago I compiled the first glossary of words, expressions, and the general patois employed by musicians and entertainers in New York’s teeming Harlem. That the general public agreed with me is amply evidenced by the fact that the present issue is the sixth edition since 1938 and is the official jive language reference book of the New York Public Library”( Bjorn 23).










Works cited

Bjorn, Lars. Before Motown: A History of Jazz in Detroit, 1920-60. University of Michigan Press, 2001.Print.

Davis, John S. Historical Dictionary of Jazz. Scarecrow Press, 2012. Print.

Gioia, Ted. The History of Jazz. Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.

Schuller, Gunther. The Swing Era: The Development of Jazz, 1930-1945. Oxford University Press, 1991. Print.



English Paper





























The story’s setting is in a Spanish café where two waiters one old and the other a young one are working late. The two are engaged in a conversation discussing a deaf old man who comes into the café every night and drinks till late. The young waiter then mentions that the old man tried to commit suicide unsuccessfully in the previous week. When asked about the reason for having committed suicide, the young man says nothing made him commit suicide. According to the young man, the old man has money and thus has no reason to commit suicide. The old waiter knew better, as he empathized with the man for staying so late in the night since he felt the same way. This feeling of nothingness that the old man and the older waiter felt was what Hemingway showed as the cause of despair. When the old waiter changed the prayer from ‘our father who art in heaven’ to ‘our nada who art in nada’; it showed that religion was no longer comforting. Nada is the Spanish term for nothing; this showed that even the religion that comforted many did not appear to help them out of their despair.

Despair is also a significant theme that manifests in the short essay. The old waiter together with the old man is trying to find ways to deal with the despair that their lives have brought. They have both struggled to cope with the desperation in various ways. The way the old man deals with despair is to sit down in a well-lit café and drink till late. The elderly man is said to have money, but even that money has not removed the despair out of his life. He tried committing suicide unsuccessfully in an attempt to quell the desperation. He also had a wife at one point, and now he does not. The young waiter believes this is the reason or the man’s loneliness and desperation. The old waiter also prefers to sit late into the night in a well-lit café; the routine of sitting in cafes and bars drinking is what helps them to deal with the despair that they face.

Loneliness is a major theme in the short story; the young waiter refers to the old man as lonely mainly because he has no wife. The same predicament is faced by the old waiter who has no one to wait for him at home as he goes to lie in his room and lacks sleep till morning. The young waiter refuses to give the old man more drinks and the old waiter opposes this as he knows what it feels like to go home in the dark with nothing or no one waiting for you. The old waiter knows that the only way to combat the feeling of nothingness and loneliness; is to sit in a well-lighted place for the night, have a certain level of cleanliness and dignity (Mukesh, 2008). This is meant when he says that he is one of those who prefer to stay in cafes late in the night; ‘…with all those who do not want to go to bed. He says he has insomnia, but the readers know better especially when he says it is only insomnia, and many must have it. The fact that he thinks many people experience insomnia shows that he feels comforted in knowing that he may not be the only one struggling with loneliness.







Mukesh, W (2008) The refuge of the Spanish café in Hemingway’s ‘ a clean well-lighted place’ p 53

Case Study -Yahoo


Case Study -Yahoo


The desire to demonstrate incremental success is at the heart of every business. To achieve growth, businesses need to develop growth strategies, which involve well-informed decisions focused on increasing financial performance. Such strategies emphasize on the application of organizational resources to critical areas for profitable growth. Yahoo has recorded phenomenal growth within the last two decades, providing a whole host of network based services. However, the ushering of the dot com era has presented a serious market problem for Yahoo, following the growth and expansion of rival competitors.

As aforementioned in the case study materials, Yahoo faces serious internal and external challenges that require the development of an effective strategic management approach. However, to turn back to its former glory, the company must assess its long term direction, examines its scope of activities, gain advantage over its rivals, address changes in the business environment, build on its resources and competencies and meet the values and expectations of its stakeholders. This paper presents recommendations that would help yahoo in the development of its strategic management plans with the issues facing their company.

Recommendation 1: Restructure its internal Environment

Resource based strategy views strategic management within the lenses of exploiting the strategic capability of an organization, in terms of its resources and competences, to provide competitive advantage and yield new opportunities. The case study material has revealed that Yahoo possesses a number of internal competencies than most of it rivals. First,   it has a well-structured directory and an authenticated business library that can be developed and customized into a new and good source of revenue. Second, capacity to provide customized and contextual advertising is a critical competitive tool. Third, it has a mobile segment with its auxiliary products and effective relationship with third party service providers. Last, Yahoo has a team of employees that have the technical and managerial capacities to support the company towards its goals. However, the internet world is constantly changing and Yahoo must keep up with the changes.

To restructure its internal environment, Yahoo must focus on employee skills improvement; focus on internal operational efficiency, focus on long-term sustained growth, exploit its internal competencies such as its strong customer base and financial strength, and last, develop and implement a differentiated strategy to avoid over-reliance on contextual advertising and offering premium services.

            Williams (2008) defines operational skills as key positive attributes that lead to operational efficiency and help in the achievement of organizational goals. These skills comprise of inspiring leadership, operational efficiencies, human skill management and cost leadership. This can be achieved through the development of an enabling internal environment and a greater focus on the people. Yahoo must focus on the development of an internal environment upon which people can contribute to supporting an organizational success. This is because the growth and development of the people and their concerted efforts towards an achievement of a common goal are increasingly taking centre stage in leadership analysis.

For an organization that focuses on growth such as the case of Yahoo, leadership forms one of the most prized and critical element and there is need to attach greatest effort towards the development of enabling environment upon which organizational objectives can be achieved. Employees are the greatest asset of an organization through which organizational objectives and their realization are anchored because strategic management of human skill plays a critical role in enhancing the capacity of the top corporate leaders to support and engage frontline managers (Grant, 2003). Yahoo must seek to attract and retain best talents in order to in order to achieve a long-term direction and gain advantage over its competitors.

Within its internal environment, Yahoo is endowed with a number of privileged assets. Privileged assets are assets owned by a firm, which helps it achieve competitive advantage over its competitors because they are hard to imitate, are owned on basis of law or are limited in existence. The first and foremost distinctive competency of the company is the ability to enable people relate to their passion. This is as per Yahoo’s mission statement and is also reflective in the product portfolio. The company is probably the leader in the industry in terms of the number of services and products that the company offers.

For sustained growth, Yahoo must capitalize on its well-structured and authenticated business library because of their relation to sustained growth, operational efficiencies and competitive advantage. In addition, it must make strategic use of its established brands, efficient distribution channels and stable and large customer base. Yahoo’s distinctive competency of the company is the brand name, which has helped it retain its users despite its consistent problem in bringing new innovative products like its competitors Google and Facebook. The third and most important is the efficiency of Yahoo marketing services and its ability to attract customers and publishers.

Since its beginning the business model of Yahoo has been heavily reliant on contextual advertising and offering premium services. One of the most privileged assets an organization or firm may acquire in the course of business is a loyal, stable and large customer base because the capacity to acquire and retain customer base is a sign of growth and stability. There are only two key sources of competitive advantage for organisations, which include the ability to learn more about the needs of their customers’ faster than the competitors and to turn that knowledge or learning into actions faster than their competitors. To be customer centric therefore means knowing your customers an organization does not only know its customers, but also can turn the knowledge into an asset by meeting their needs and retaining them.

Customer centric requires organisations to consistently interact with their customers across all networks, collect customer data, analyse it to get insight into customer preferences and behaviour, act to provide these needs in the most effective way so both the customers and the business benefit from the relationship (Grant, 2003). Customer centric therefore consists of aligning the organisation’s resources, responding effectively and efficiently to the ever-changing customer needs and building relationships that are mutually benefiting to both parties. The resources referred to are not restricted to the customer service team or the personnel, but rather, all products and service, all personnel in the firm, operating systems and procedures, and the organisation’s systems have direct impact on the ability of the firm to become customer centric.

Financial strength is an important determinant of the capacity to implement strategic objectives of a company.  The assessment of the case study materials reveals that Yahoo is probably the leader in the industry in terms of the number of services and products that the company offers. The possession of financial capacity to undertake organizational activities and programs is not only an important tool for competitive advantage and growth, but a demonstration of capacity to sustain business over a long period time. Yahoo must aim at injecting a large pool of its capital investments in specific target areas with the capacity to achieve high returns on investments. The differentiated strategy has been viewed as the most appropriate path to take in investment decisions because it remains the most viable path in solving the challenge of mixed fortunes, which has marked Yahoo’s profitability trends in the recent past.

Despite the simplicity of the strategy, keen interest for its success lies in comprehensive and detailed analysis of grave issues, a firm must also learn to do business differently in order to attain growth. The investment path chosen by Yahoo will have profound bearings on its cost of debt and the subsequent capital structure.

Recommendation 2: Understand both local and global market needs and develop a long term strategic approach

Yahoo is endowed with a wide range of external competencies such as large market base, which it can use to track and adjust real time.  Due to the nature of internet, entry in to the web portal industry is relatively easy but based on the amount of capital, innovative skills and technological knowledge required to attract and maintain a large user base in the web portal industry, the threat of new entrants that can compete directly with Yahoo is quite low. However, competition for the market share amongst the existing companies is very stiff. It is recommended that Yahoo seeks to penetrate the new and emerging markets, create value innovation in its products and develop a long-term strategy which achieves advantage in a changing environment through its configuration of resources and competences with the aim of fulfilling stakeholder expectations.

A number of approaches are available for categorization and of operational business processes in accordance with rate of applicability, and change level required. Williams (2008) observes that, “quality-oriented methods such as business process improvement and activity-based costing mechanisms are intended to yield continuous but incremental improvement that serve the purpose of an organization’s long term objectives.” Continuous improvement through value innovation is a contextual approach of business process improvement whose outcome will lead to incremental improvement for Yahoo.

It is hardly possible to achieve radical and continuous improvement at one go; therefore, Yahoo need to devise ways of harmonising the two different innovation procedures. Radical and continuous innovations apply transversely between business processes but intermittently within a single business process. Hence, there should be a paradigm shift to from the conventional ways of practicing innovation (radical) to practicable innovation (continuous).

In addition, to achieve its long-term strategic intent, the company must focus on the development of its market and adapt to the continuous changes that encompass the internet industry. Market development, as a measure of growth, requires a strong commercialization plan, which revolves around the need to adapt brands to meet local and regional culture and hold onto the cultural changes. This is because of the understanding that branding act as a means of linking items to product line and emphasizes the individuality of product items. This emphasis can only be achieved in instances where products items fit into the local or regional culture of the target market (Hall, Jones, Raffo & Anderton, 2009). This is a competitive advantage that is commonly used by competing firms engaged in the sale of similar or substitute products. In essence, this means that Yahoo outperforms the others in the primary goal of performance-profitability, and as such, acquires the competitive advantage.

A reference back to the branding generic model of firms can be made, where the question of whether firms are branding strategies is cost driven or value added arises. Value added competitive advantage arises in instances where competing firms attach strong cognizance to the value addition of their products before launching their product lines and is an important measure to market development. Yahoo will succeed in its branding strategies better than their rivals do if their products are positioned to capitalize on their unique characteristics of a local or regional group and which, in one or more aspects, their rivals find hard to emulate. This competitive advantage gives it a basis for outperforming competitors because of the value that firms are able to present to the customer and the long-term market development derived from these initiatives (Bonsu & Darmody, 2008).

            In order to understand both local and global market needs and develop a long term strategic approach, Yahoo must develop special relationships with firms offering similar or different products. Developing special relationships is a key measure of growth because of the need for expansion of marketing chains. Firms engaged in global businesses require special forms of relationships to gain competitive advantage. Different entry strategies of a firm present a number of benefits that can be easily used to gain competitive advantage. Special relationships developed with other service providers enable firms to avoid substantial cost of delivering their services globally.

Other service providers not only help in pushing the product into the market, they also help in developing a cost leadership approach to business management, which are key advantages Yahoo can exploit. In addition, the choices and decisions in investments made are highly influenced by risks and are therefore fully dependent on risk profile. To minimize risks, ensure continuity and extend relationships, it is important to diversify the range of products and services availed to the market. This is because of the need to fulfil contingent of risk management activities and achieve a balanced dynamic portfolio. The underlying factor is that every business is faced with the principal aim of increasing the amount of wealth by making strategic choices that fit into profile risks and improves on the bottom line (Hitt & Ireland, 2008). To attain these objectives and tailor the resources towards growth, Yahoo must develop a clear delineation and paucity of the effects portfolio structure on the returns and risks.

Diversification also enhances relationships in cross-border alliances, which are main sources of incompatibility in the operations of business. Different cultures may generate differences in the operations of businesses in cross-border alliances. These include differences in leadership styles, objectives, reward systems, promotional strategies, governance, strategy and control among other managerial issues. One effect method of minimizing the impact of incompatibility in cross-border alliance is the harmonization of the culture that drives business (Cova & Salle, 2008). This forms the underlying path upon which companies in an alliance may develop uniform approaches strategic decision making, pursue common goals, develop common leadership styles and institute common control mechanisms.

When firms decide to expand their markets globally, they often reap beneficial outcomes as well as face a number of threats. Yahoo will achieve the opportunistic global market share through diversification of its products and markets.  Diversification of markets helps in the long term cushioning of risks, especially in the event of stiff competition posed by new entrants in the traditional markets (Gupta, Gupta & Krishnaswami, 2013). Secondly, global operations enable firms to exploit different economic growth rates and scope. This enables a firm to benefit from realization of location and experience curve economies. Yahoo can make this an effective method of wading off competition from home, expanding the markets and pursuing a global imperative.

Yahoo must perpetrate for the challenges of globalization and rapid expansion. Entering culturally-closed markets is often one of the most daunting tasks for most marketing managers. However, with the right entry strategy and skills, it is possible to gain a sizable share of a culturally-closed market. In the absence of trade barriers, the focus should be on understanding the underlying issues of culture that drive such market dominance.

Yahoo has a chance in through strategic mergers and acquisition of firms that have the capacity to push its market expansion strategy.  Globalization, market changes, and diminishing resources have led to an increase in mergers in the recent past (Hubbard, 2013). One issue that has been noted in the markets is the mergers with companies in different industries. Yahoo can merge with other service providers because it may want to benefit from the intangible resources of a new partner. These include proprietary process or brand names. In forging a common front, these companies are likely to exist harmoniously in the market and jointly fight competition in their respective industries. Yahoo may also develop better relationships with other companies to share major resources. In merging, they seek to operating synergies that may see them ahead of competition.


An organization’s structures and activities usually will change in the different stages of growth. This will be in response to the changes in the operating environment, both internal and external. The social capital, external networking and coaching needs are more intense and hands on during the early stages of innovative start-ups. The recommendations presented above provide an elaborate path upon which the company can attain its long term direction, examines its scope of activities, gain advantage over its rivals, address changes in the business environment, build on its resources and competencies and meet the values and expectations of its stakeholders.

















Bonsu, S., Darmody, A. (2008), Co-creating Second Life – Market-consumer cooperation in contemporary economy, Journal of Macromarketing, 28(4), 355-368.

Cova, B.and Salle, R. (2008). Marketing solutions in accordance with the S-D logic: co-creating value with customer network actors, Industrial Marketing Management, 37, 270–277.

Grant, R. (2003). Contemporary Strategy Analysis: concepts, techniques, applications, 4th edition. Oxford: Blackwell publishing.

Gupta, P.D., Gupta, S. and Krishnaswami, S.S. (2013). Firm growth and its determinants. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 2:15-27.

Hall, D.Jones, R.Raffo, C.,and Anderton, A. 2009. Business Studies. Fourth Edition. Pearson Education: Essex

Hitt, M.A. and Ireland, R.D. (2008). Competing For Advantage. Cengage Learning.

Williams, C., 2008. Effective management. 3rd Ed. London: Cengage Learning.


Yahoo 10K.(2011, 12 31).Yahoo 10k Annual Report. Retrieved from http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/YHOO/2120211742x0xS1193125-12-86972/1011006/filing.pdf









Leadership, Management Theories




Leadership management theories

Leadership is the most integral part of an organization that requires appropriate and efficient knowledge and skills to ensure that the organization achieves its target goals. Through concrete management in an organization, it is definitely that the targeted goals are likely to be made when other resources are available. For achievement of the organizational goals, there are different assumptions that have been generated by various scholars explaining on the effective leadership and the most appropriate way to run an organization towards achieving the organizational goals.

The assumptions usually guide on the proper procedures that can significantly facilitate the improvement of the team leadership towards achieving its objectives. It is important for the team to utilize these assumptions in building the organization management since they are of great importance. Different groups that use the theories in building their management structure achieves the goals (Northouse, P. G. 2010). Although there are various approaches that offer the best strategies for administration in an organization, it is exceedingly important to utilize the most appropriate methods to ensure that the management achieves the most positive results.

Path goal theory, transformational leader’s theory, and team leadership theory are three most utilized approach by most of organization in ensuring that the group has achieved its organizational goals. Through the use of these three principles, the leadership in the organization has been greatly improved, and the organizational structure has been built concretely. The combination of the three approaches by the directorate leaders in an organization ensures that vast knowledge and skills are achieved to ensure that the team goal is achieved successfully.

Path goal theory usually helps in ensuring that the organization’s goal is focused and transformational theory provides that organization leaders keep their followers on track to ensure that they achieve the organization’s goal. While Team Leadership Theory team leadership theory helps in keeping the group management, stakeholders and employees as one team that is working towards one goal. Through utilization of these three principles in organization management, it is exceedingly possible that many of the goals are likely to be achieved successfully.

Path goal theory usually plays a big role in organization leadership since it ensures that leaders can face challenges that they face in the right manner to prevent any possible damages. The path-goal theory usually states that it is the role of the leader to guide their followers to ensure that the organization goals are achieved successfully. It 8s the responsibility of the manager to define the objective of the organization and lay down appropriate strategies to ensure that the goals are achieved successfully (Northouse, P. G. 2010). Through appropriate guidelines of the leader according to the theory, the organizational journey is made easier through reducing the roadblock and pitfalls that the organization might face.

The method was usually developed by Robert House to ensure that organization leaders utilize critical thinking in making organizational decisions to ensure that the target goals are achieved. According to the theory, if the decisions that are made by the leader are not appropriate, it is defiantly negative results that are going to be achieved by the decision made. According to Robert, when wrong decisions are made in an organization, negative consequences are likely trio be experienced from the decision made by the leader (Abbott, H., & Booth, H. 2014). The utilization of the theory in an organization of leaders imposes different advantages and disadvantages concerning the decisions made according to the theory.

The path-goal theory is frequently based on negative or positive consequences of whatever decision that is made. Through the decision in an organization, there are different advantages that are typically brought about. Through utilization of the theory in an organization, leadership followers are significantly motivated towards achieving the goal asset by the management since it mandates to ensure that they achieve the most positive results. Through utilization of the theory by managers, the decisions and consequences of the actions made are usually confident making the method most appropriate to be utilized by leaders to ensure that they achieve their target goals.

It is normally easy to eliminate the obstacle that is faced by the organization, especially in management through utilization of the theory. Removing obstacles that are experienced by the organization is typically easier since the theory helps in ensuring that the environment is well analyzed to ensure that modern leadership is attributed to the organization (Northouse, P. G. 2010). The theory offers a chance for a leader to ensure that there are appropriate strategies to ensure that the team goals are achieved successfully.

Besides the advantages obtained by the theory of leadership, there are different positions related to the utilization of the method by leaders. For the appropriate leadership style through the theory, there are more restrictions and analysis required for the parameters to ensure that the most appropriate style of leadership is achieved in the organization. When the inappropriate analysis is concerned the parameters, the negative results are most likely to be obtained by the decisions that are made by the leaders leading to negative results. The theory usually concentrates on leadership on the decision made ignoring the followers of the management. It is exceedingly important to involve organization stakeholders, management and members in all decisions that are made in the body.

Transformational leadership is a theory that the majority of leaders is utilizing in ensuring that they achieve their organization’s goal. Transformational leadership imposes massive advantages into leadership through different strategies that the theory offers leaders to facilitate motivation, the right relationship with leaders, stakeholders and followers of management in the organization and promote the critical thing by leaders. Leaders who utilize this theory in managing their organization benefits from different opportunities idea that the theory imposes. According to (Marshall, E. S., & Marshall, E. S. 2011), transformational leadership is usually a procedure where organization leaders and followers integrate with a mutual process of ensuring that there is the highest level of motivation in through each other motivation process.

There are different advantages that this theory imposes to leaders who utilizes it in organizing organization strategies. Motivation to the followers is the primary target of this approach since motivation in an organization is viewed as the source of hard work towards the team goal achievement. By leaders offering a chance to the followers to generate their ideas into the organization management offers a new idea intro the group that can significantly help in improving organization production. Leaders who utilize this theory encourages their workers to enhance innovation in the organization processes, factors that increase organization standardization of products and services. According to the theory, a leader is required to guide the way towards achieving the organizational goals.

By the leader practicing the strategies and regulation that are put in place for the achievement of the organizational goals, the followers are likely going to follow the path of the head. Honesty, transformational theory facilitates the growth of the organization when the leader utilizes the theory according. It is the responsibility of the leader to guide the followers and mentor them to facilitate the organization goal achievement. It is clear that this theory concentrates on ensuring that the organization leaders plays their role in guiding towards the target goal. The theory as well strengthens the good relationship among organization stakeholders, employees and customers through the management.

Besides the massive benefits the theory is offered to leaders who utilize the theory, there are different disadvantages that are encountered by utilizing the theory. Leaders who employ the theory in various cases develops a management impression that leads to the promotion of self-amoral (Schwartz, M. K., & Gimbel, K. G. 2000). It is difficult for the leaders to be trained in the theory since many of its strategies involves different management approaches. It is a great risk when organization leaders are much closer with their followers. The theory encourages close relationship that might lead to losing more than the organization is gaining.

Group decision-making theory as well offers different advantages to the leaders who utilize it in ensuring that the target goals of the organization are achieved. The theory states that leaders who encourage group decision making arrives at the final solution for the business process for best advantage achievement. The theory helps the utilization of group decision making in every process that it’s taken in the company in the different hierarchy of management to arrive at the best results that will facilitate organization progress. The theory involves various stages that handle ensuring that facilitates achievement of the final results. Creating the team is usually the first phase of this theory after when the steering of the team is done (Marshall, E. S., & Marshall, E. S. 2011). Developing the team, supporting towards achieving the target results after when simulation and sustaining of the performance is maintained. The theory makes different advantages for the organization leaders who utilize it in theory in management.

The theory facilitates real leadership into the organization since it encourages team performance. Decisions that are normally through this decision involves different views that broaden the achievement of the right results. The theory greatly encourages critical thinking and innovation in the organization since it offers organization, followers a chance to demonstrate their ideas into the organization processes. Good relationship among organization team imposes different advantages into the organization that leads to production improvement. The relationship is typically built among organization leaders and followers a factor that encourages focus towards achieving the individual target. The team that makes their decisions together tends to grow the organization massively since there is a commitment among leaders and followers. Although there are these advantages, the theory imposes significant risk into the organization on its utilization.

The most of the opinions that have arrived at the theory are usually manipulated or influenced by the different view offered (Abbott, H., & Booth, H. 2014). The views from the theory are substantially biased making it inappropriate for making some essential decisions for the organization. In the process of group decision-making an approach to be made, it takes different phases that are vital for the achievement of the final determination. For the final decision to be arrived at, there is much time spent making it inappropriate for emergency decisions. It is difficult for the theory to be utilized in making decisions that final results are required to be achieved immediately. It is exceedingly important to use these ideas in organization management to ensure that most positive outcomes are achieved. By integrating the advantages of both theories into the organization leadership, there are different risks that are likely to be made by leaders.

The three theories substantially utilize both by different organizations to ensure that organization’s goals are achieved. Leadership is usually a process by which an individual influences follower is achieving the organizational goals. It is significantly important for managers to have different skills and knowledge to ensure that they achieve their leadership goals. According to both theories, leaders are required to utilize critical thinking while making the different decision for the organization. The path goal theory states that leaders are the guide of the organization, and if they make decisions that are wrong there will be negative consequences to the organization.

According to this theory, organization managers are required to be critical thinking while making different decisions for the organization (Schwartz, M. K., & Gimbel, K. G. 2000). Transformational leadership theory, considerable emphasis on leaders have a close relationship with their followers through motivation and to inspire to achieve the organization’s goal. The theory states that when leaders in an organization become the mentor to his follower’s positive results are likely going to be experienced in the organization.

Team leadership in an organization imposes different benefits to the organization since it ensures that different ideas are generated from organized groups to achieve the most positive results from the final decision made. According to this theory, innovation and creativity among followers are greatly facilitated since they are offered a chance to demonstrate their ideas (Marshall, E. S., & Marshall, E. S. 2011). Through the theory, managers are capable of making decisions that are of great benefit to the organization. Path goal theory, transformation theory, and team decision-making theory are of great importance to the organizations that utilizes them to offer leadership. They usually encourage utilization of different approaches that provides solutions to the achievement of the target goals.  The disadvantages that are commonly faced with the use of these theories of less impact to the organization.

Zappos is an organization that sells shoes online, making it an appropriate organization to utilize different theories for its management. The combination of the three theories can significantly facilitate the organization achieving its goals successfully. The organization requires excellent relationship among organization leaders, followers, and customers, making it necessary to integrate both theories into leadership. A different process in leadership requires different approaches, making it necessary to utilize a variety of methods to achieve the most positive results from the decision made.

Path goal theory is of great importance since it can ensure that the organization leaders are working towards the team goal. And transformational leadership theory facilitating the proper relationship between the organization leaders and followers, which enhances the process of decision making. The three theories can be of great importance in ensuring that organization leadership is effective towards achieving their target goal.

In conclusion, organizational leadership is the most integral process in an organization that requires appropriate leadership. By using different theories search as mentioned above, ensures that the organization achieves its goals and facilitate in planning for the future of the organization. According to the institution, it is important to utilize different theories that fit the organization structure. Leadership is the core process that organizations are required to concentrate greatly on perfecting.

Besides the utilization of the three above theories, there are other different theories that usually offer different approaches to ensure that the organization achieves their leadership goal that facilitates in improving the organization productivity. Organizational leadership is a challenging process that requires utilization of broad ideas and critical thinking to achieve the target goal (Schwartz, M. K., & Gimbel, K. G. 2000). Leaders who use the theories are seen to lead their organization in the right direction against their competitors in the market. Apple is an example of an organization that utilizes leadership theories in managing their different processes, making it achieve massive advantages in the market against their competitors like DELL Company.




Marshall, E. S., & Marshall, E. S. (2011). Transformational leadership in nursing: From expert clinician to influential leader. New York, NY: Springer.

Abbott, H., & Booth, H. (2014). Foundations For Operating Department Practice: Essential Theory For Practice. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Education.

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Scouller, J. (2011). The three levels of leadership: How to develop your leadership presence, knowhow, and skill. Cirencester: Management Books 2000.

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